According to a 1999 census 758 per 1000 of the population, age 15 and over, have completed secondary education or higher. Literacy among the same age group was 98% (men - 99.5%, women - 98.2%), with the small number of illiterates in the middle and upper age groups.
In 2000 there were 1,790 functioning preschool institutions in Azerbaijan, serving 111,000, or 16.1 percent of children of the respective age. In the Yevlakh and Neftchala regions there are two progressive "schools-kindergartens" with 109 young children attending. In addition, 1,265 children receive education in the 1st class program that runs in 71 preschool establishments. 82 percent of preschool establishments for first year pupils are located in urban localities.
To complement the general preschool facilities (99%) there are five special purpose and five sanatorium-type preschools for physically or mentally impaired children.
Furthermore, in six pre-school establishments special units have been established where 404 children receive both education and treatment. In 14 kindergartens special groups exist for dumb, deaf and blind children.
In 2003 1,690,000 children are attending 4,561 general education schools. Of these, 1,654,000 attend during the day and 36,000 at night. General education schools employ 172,000 teachers.
For 84,000 high academic achievers, Azerbaijan has 225 specialized schools, including 7 gymnasiums and 33 Lyceums.
There are 702 schools for refugees and internally displaced persons, part of them being situated in refugee camps and houses, some are situated in buildings. Some 88,000 pupils from refugee families study at these schools. For several years the schools have been working under overloaded conditions due to the number of refugees. In 2003, 580,000 refugees (35%) study in the second and third shifts.
Young people receive secondary vocational education via a network of multidirectional education establishments.
At the beginning of the school year 2000-2001 there were 68 state specialized secondary schools, attended by 41,000 students.
The reduction in admittance to technical secondary schools during the first half of the 1990s was followed by a significant increase from 1998. In accordance with the data supplied by the State Commission on Admission of Students, there were 138 applications per 100 places seeking education in vocational secondary schools. The number of those students seeking places at a medical education facility is higher still, 186 persons per 100 places.
Higher vocational schools are represented by the wide network of state and non-state higher education establishments.
In the Republic of Azerbaijan at the beginning of the 2000/2001 school year there were 25 state high schools, with 91,000 students. There were also the following specialized academies: Military Command Academy, Naval College, Baky Police Academy, and the National Security Academy.
The increase in admittance to high schools since 1995 shows the growth of interest to higher vocational education. This is also confirmed by the results of the poll held by the State Statistical Committee in November 2000 among pupils of senior classes of comprehensive schools. This poll showed 90% of those who finish secondary school wanted to continue with their education in some form, with 65% wishing to enter university.
High school entry in 2000 was 20,500, some 33% (5,100) up on 1995, with both the number of places and the number of applicants increasing. According to the State Commission on Admission of Students there were, on average, 275 applications for every 100 places. The following specializations attracted most interest: 3 applicants per place for humanities, international relations, music and arts; between 3 and 4 applicants per place for medicine, chemistry and biology.
One of the innovations of the reform of education in Azerbaijan is the establishment of new types of educational institution.
The number of the non-state secondary vocational education facilities is not high and this influences the training of specialists at this level. At the beginning of the 2000/2001 school year there were only three non-state secondary vocational schools, with 1,439 students studied. Of these, 616 students were on teacher training, 742 studied medicine, and 81 studied philology.
There are also a number of non-state higher schools in the country. At the beginning of the 2000/2001 school year 18 licensed non-state higher schools were operating. These were attended by 28,700 students, up from the 1995/1996 level of 12,500.
Specialist training to meet the needs of the employment market is given in commercial higher schools, where 26% of students study economics and 20% study law.
Education Attainment (2001), per 1000 population persons age 15 and over
|Higher and secondary education of which:||908|
Secondary Education (2001)
Vocational Education (2001)
Higher Education (2001)
A wide network of scientific institutions has been established. At the beginning of 2001 there were 137 scientific research institutes, higher schools and other establishments functioning in the Republic attended by 26,400 students carrying out scientific research.
At the beginning of 2004 Azerbaijan had 3,354 clubs, 4,374 public libraries, 607 movie houses, 27 professional theaters, 4 philharmonic societies, 7 musical collectives, and 155 museums. Theater productions are performed in Azeri, Russian and Lezgin languages.
In 2000 there were 735 hospitals and 1,614 ambulatory polyclinics operating in the country. This compares with 731 hospitals and 1826 ambulatory policlinics in 1990. The number of doctors per 10,000 of the population in 2000 was 36.5 compared to 38.7 in 1990.
The number of the population that received medical treatment in 2000 was 2.7 million, 18.5 % lower than in 1990. Of these, 1.2 million people, or approximately every seventh person, visited dispensaries for medical examinations related to chronic diseases.
Among those diseases registered in 2001 as being prevalent were those of the respiratory, circulatory and digestive system, diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, infections and parasitic diseases.
Main Indicators (2001)
|Doctors (as percentage of all professions)||29.1|
|Per 10,000 men||36.3|
|Beds in hospitals||69,900|
|Per 10,000 men||86.0|
Every year 11-14 billion cubic meters of drinking water is drawn from the nation’s water resources, some 34 percent of renewable sources. Consumption is between 7-10 billion cubic meters; 60% being used in agriculture, 35% in industry and 5% for household purposes.
The volume of foul water generated each year is 138-180 million cubic meters, 91% of which is produced from homes and offices.
Atmospheric pollutants from ground sources amounted to 515,000 tons in 2000, or 64 kg per capita. Motor vehicle exhaust is the major contributor to air pollution, constituting 43% of the total, or 393,000 tons in 2000. Another major pollutant is toxic waste. Estimates put current volumes of accumulated toxic waste at 2,900 tons.
In contrast, 14 natural reserves with a total territorial area of 192,000 hectares are set aside for the protection and reproduction of flora and fauna in Azerbaijan. In 2001, the sum spent on protection of the environment and management of the natural environment was 104.2 billion mantas. This expenditure was 0.4 percent of the total gross domestic product.
Investment into environmental protection reduced in the late nineties in line with economic difficulties being experienced in the country. In 2000, only 8.6 billion manats was invested into measures on environment protection.